Acceptable resolutions. It is extremely
important that the proper resolution be used when submitting
digital artwork. Low resolution graphics are commonly misused in
the publication process. In the past, online images have
typically been viewed on a 72 or 96 DPI monitor. The high
resolution screens on tablet computers are gaining popularity,
and all submissions of raster images should have a minimum
resolution of 300 DPI/PPI. This allows users a better viewing
experience and supports minimal requirements for laser printer
output. For reference, categories of raster images are described
Images that are purely black and white. Images such as line
graphs (shown left) fall into this category.
- Halftones (RGB/Grayscale)
Images containing pictures only. For example, an image not
containing text labeling or thin lines (shown center)
- Combination Halftones
Images containing pictures and text labeling and/or thin lines
requirements. All digital art submitted must be
bitmap (Monochrome), grayscale, or RGB.
Historically, color images were submitted in CMYK format. We have
now adopted RGB as our primary color mode, to ensure that the
online version has all of the brilliant colors of your original
Note: If an original image in the RGB color space is converted to
CMYK and saved in that color space, the brilliant colors are
lost. The conversion is a one-way process. While an RGB image can
be converted to a CMYK image, a CMYK image can be saved as a faux
RGB image but that will not restore the original colors. The RGB
color space is the default mode for most digital cameras.
sizing. All graphics should be submitted with a
consideration of online viewing while allowing for the option of
print output. The published image may be seen on monitors of
various sizes. With that in mind, the maximum width of a graphic
should be 7.2 inches (18.2 cm) and a maximum height of 6 inches (15
cm). When scaled, these dimensions allow for the optimum screen
ratio of 8:6. Each image included within a submission should
maintain the same fonts and type sizes when all figures are
Crop figures so that no white space extends beyond the border of
the figure. This will help reduce file size and improve accuracy
when placing the figure in combination with other elements on the
Also, check each graphic carefully for unnecessary elements
(items not intended to print) around the figure and off the page
(i.e. type, lines, etc.). Some unnecessary elements may not be
visible because they are assigned a white fill or stroke. Items
such as these should be found and removed.
usage. Avoid the use of decorative, script,
handwritten, or highly compressed fonts. Instead, limit typefaces
to legible fonts such as the following - preferred for the
creation of digital art figures:
- European PI
- Mathematical PI
- Times Roman
usage of these fonts does not ensure that font problems will not
occur. Please be cautious and view a PDF version of your image to
ensure the text appears as you intended.
In some instances, fonts may need to be converted to paths (or
outlines) in the application they were created with. For example,
Adobe Illustrator and CorelDRAW can convert type to paths. Please
do this conversion prior to exporting to EPS.
NOTE: Font usage does not apply to pixel editing programs
like Adobe Photoshop because the typefaces are not necessary to
process a raster image. The other legibility isses still
Images. Before placing images in programs like
Illustrator, FreeHand, Canvas, or CorelDraw, the images should be
checked for the following:
- All placed art should be in TIFF or EPS
- The resolution should be at least 300
- The color mode of the TIFF/EPS should be
either Monochrome (bitmap mode), Grayscale, or RGB. The RGB
mode is used for color figures and Grayscale/Monochrome for
black & white.
- Crop and size images properly before
importing so that masking, scaling, or rotating is not
necessary while in the drawing program.
graphics. Graphics downloaded or saved from web pages
are not acceptable for submission for publication.
While these graphics may have been suitable in their original
online context, their resolution is far below acceptable quality
standards for review and publication.
figures. Make sure that any multipanel figures (i.e.,
figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.) are assembled into
one file. Rather than sending four files (Fig1a, Fig1b, Fig1c,
Fig1d) the four parts should be assembled into one piece and
supplied as one file.
Numbers, letters, and symbols used throughout a multipanel figure
must be consistent in font size and style. The smallest font size
in a figure must not be less than 70% of the largest font in that
figure. In the examples below, the various text sizes in the
"good" figure fall within an acceptable range. The
"bad" figure has very tiny numbers along the charts
axes with much larger text used for locants and other
In some cases, a multipanel figure may consist of halftones
(e.g., photographs, or scanned images) with added elements of
text, charts or lines. The most effective way to arrange and
assemble these elements is a vector editing program such as Adobe
Illustrator or CorelDraw. These applications offer far more
control of image attributes and are the best method for adding
text, charts, or lines.
CAUTION: Some authors may have
already used PowerPoint to assemble their multipanel figures, but
good halftones can lose both color depth and resolution if they
unnecessarily pass through PowerPoint. For the same reasons, MS
Word and Excel are not suitable programs for assembling
In all cases, the final file format must be EPS or TIFF.
applications. Before Cenveo Publisher Services
can accept files created by an application, the application must be
thoroughly tested by CPS.
Our intention is not only to support as many applications as
possible, but to add new applications whenever possible.